Optimum Design of Reinforced Cantilever Retaining Walls


Obtaining an optimum (in terms of cost and weight) design of reinforced cantilever retaining walls subjected to dynamic loading. 


  • Flower Pollination Algorithm is modified with powerful features of Differential Evolution algorithm. The new algorithm is capable of searching for the optimum in a more robust manner than the parent algorithm.
  • Sensitivity analyses are performed to find out the phenomena (angle of internal friction, cohesion, backfill slope, etc.) that have major effects on the cost and weight of cantilever retaining walls.
  • The performance tests with other metaheuristics reveal that the new algorithm succeeded in finding optimum dimensions better than most of the other algorithms.
  • The study shows that further research is needed to examine the efficiency of the new algorithm on different types of retaining walls, such as gravity walls.